Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth, both of the Connecticut delegation, created a compromise that, in a sense, mixed the proposals of Virginia (large state) and New Jersey (small state) regarding the division of Congress. In the end, however, their main contribution was to determine the division of the Senate. Sherman sided with both houses of the Virginia National Legislature, but suggested that “the portion of the right to vote in the 1st branch [house] should be based on the respective number of free residents; and that in the second branch or the senate, each state should have one vote, no more.  Although Sherman was very popular and respected among the delegates, his plan initially failed. It wasn`t until July 23 that the performance was finally settled.  The other sections of Article I provide details on how Congress is to be formed and conducted. The first section, as we have read above, makes our Congress a bicameral system. The bicameral system means that Congress has two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. We have both houses of Congress because of a compromise made by the Founding Fathers at the Constitutional Convention. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of larger and more populous states favored Virginia`s plan, which called for representation in Congress to be based on a state`s population.
Fearing domination, delegates from small states were equally adamant in favor of equal representation, supporting New Jersey`s plan, which suggested that every state should have one vote, regardless of population. Roger Sherman, a delegate from Connecticut, proposed the bicameral legislative structure. The Grand Compromise, along with other provisions, led to the creation of two chambers, with population-based representation in one (the House of Representatives) and equal representation in the other (the Senate). Less populous states like Delaware feared that such an order would cause their voices and interests to be drowned out by the larger states. Many delegates also felt that the convention did not have the power to completely abolish the Articles of Confederation, as the Virginia Plan would have done. In response, William Paterson of the New Jersey delegation proposed a unicameral legislature on June 15, 1787. Each State should be equally represented in that body, regardless of its population. The New Jersey plan, as it was called, would have retained the articles of the Confederacy, but would have modified them to somewhat expand the powers of Congress.  The enactment of primary law often requires a simultaneous majority – the consent of a majority of the members of each of the chambers of the legislature. If so, the legislator can be described as an example of a perfect two-chamber system. However, in many parliamentary and semi-presidential systems, the chamber for which the executive is responsible may prevail over the other chamber and can be seen as an example of an imperfect bicameral system. Some legislators fall between these two positions, with one chamber only being able to override the other in certain circumstances.
The United States experienced painful years in the 1780s. The ratification of the federal articles in 1781 ensured an inadequate government structure. He failed to regulate trade, raise taxes and confiscate soldiers. Nor did he succeed in solving the problem of slavery that polarized the Northwest Territories. The country`s economy, which had collapsed after the Anglo-American Revolution, was struggling to recover. Debt, especially accumulated war debt, has become a huge problem in the United States. Many citizens have found it increasingly difficult to generate enough income to pay for their daily expenses as well as taxes. Even though people turned to the state for help, no social assistance developed. In addition, the controversial policy has also divided citizens.
This instability necessitated a delegation proposed by Alexander Hamilton in 1785 to deal with national reform. James Madison responded with support and asked other states to send their delegates to a conference in Annapolis, Maryland. However, only five state officials participated, but they nevertheless approved a plan in which the state would send delegates to the Philadelphia convection in 1787. In May 1787, 55 delegates from 12 states, the island of Rhodes was absent, met in Philadelphia to discuss the boundaries of the articles of the Federation. The Constitutional Convention began later when Madison proposed the Virginia Plan, which Patterson opposed to the New Jersey Plan. Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected according to different methods, which vary from one country to another. This can often lead to the fact that the two chambers have very different compositions from the members. The Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 14 to September 17, 1787. The convention was held on issues with the U.S.
government, which had worked according to the Articles of Confederation after Independence from Britain. Although the convention intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, from the outset many of its supporters, notably James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, intended to create a new government instead of repairing the current government. .